People, towns, businesses, farms and gardens all grow in Michigan soil.

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Autumn as Prelude

It’s time to get ready for winter. The days are still mild enough to enjoy being outside and there is a lot to take care of. My list stays the same from year to year. Keep the grass mowed. Rake the leaves. Caulk around windows and doors. Get the snow thrower and shovels ready. Put the storm windows in place. Get out the warm coats, boots, hats, gloves, and scarves. Put the window scrapers in the car.

Here in Jackson at the Cascades Park, I’ve been watching the geese get ready for travel. They are training in formation flying and the frequency and volume of their comm checks is easy to hear. The ducks are more mellow, but they will also leave soon for places warmer and snowless. While I enjoy watching them at a distance, I won’t miss the duck-duck-goose spatter they leave on the walkway.

Solitary heron at the shoreline.

Solitary heron at the shoreline.

I often notice a solitary heron standing near the overgrown shoreline. He will become a snow bird in the South very soon. I think he’s a blue heron, but I’m ready to be corrected. I never saw a mate; better luck next year.

Sunbathing turtles.

Sunbathing turtles.

There is quite a bit of open water and turtles are a common sight. Here in Michigan, they become dormant during the freezing month and wait in a burrow they dug in the muck. I don’t know if this pair are Blanding’s turtles, but Blanding’s do like weedy wetlands and ponds. They are easiest to spot on a sunny day when they sit out on logs, soaking up the rays.

I will remember all of this fondly when we become part of snow country.


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Romantic Spring Flower Combinations

White money plant and pink tulips are a sweet combination

White money plant and pink tulips are a sweet combination

If you like a calm and romantic mood in the garden, try pairing money plant (Lunaria annua) and pink tulips.

Money plant is available with either white or purple blooms that open in early May, depending on the spring weather. Match the timing with an early-May tulip. Try a stronger, deeper shade of pink if you are using the purple variety (Lunaria annua) and a more delicate pink for the white variety (L. annua var. albiflora).

Tulips like a sunny location and at least average soil. So does money plant, which grows in average to rich soil and partial to full sun. The blooms stay for a couple of weeks, and the seed pods are popular in decorating since they resemble coins. Money plant goes easily from seed. You can plant in the fall or the spring. It is a biennial. This years seeds sprout to become next years plants. This years plants will not return in the spring. It’s important that the seeds reach the soil, so avoid using mulch in this garden. The seed pods will blow in the wind to different locations and you can pot them up as gifts for your friends. You can also save seed pods in glassine envelopes for party favors.

Tulips are perennial in Michigan and can live for decades if they don’t become over-crowded or heavily browsed. If the blooms look less vigorous that you remember, dig up the bulbs after the leaves have turned yellow or brown and gone limp. Expect to see several bulbs instead of one. Plant all the bulbs that look healthy and discard the others in the trash. Tulips are usually planted at a depth equal to 3 times their height. Tulips planted too early are also easier for the squirrels to find      . Doug Green writing in Doug Green’s Garden recommends planting spring-blooming bulbs 4 to 6 weeks before the ground freezes. Since Michigan stretches from Zone 4a to 6a, you should plant when the ground in your yard freezes, not the mid-October date that is sometimes mentioned.

The leaves of both money plant and tulips will fade and dry out. Consider using a third plant in the garden. Look for annuals that will last until frost and hide the dying leaves. Pansies are a good choice. They are available in a variety of colors and like full sun.

Money plant seeds. Image courtesy of wikipedia.

Money plant seeds. Image courtesy of wikipedia.

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Overcrowded Shrubs

Shrubs that touch wooden structures are troublemakers.

Shrubs that touch wooden structures are troublemakers.

Bushes and shrubs need room to grow, just like other plants. If you buy a young/small version of a shrub, you need to know how big it will get so the home you can give it has the correct sun exposure, moisture, drainage, soil conditions, air circulation, and room to spread out.

The shrub pictured was planted too close to the garage. Both roots and branches are crowded. The branches can be trimmed but the roots will be distorted as they seek out nutrients. Stressed roots can shorten the life of the shrub.

Also, plants should not touch wooden structures. Moisture from rain or leaf evaporation can be absorbed by the wood and crawling insects have a highway to potential shelter. Wood window frames on houses with brick or aluminum siding exteriors can also be damaged. Plants wick water onto the wood long after the rain stops and the sun comes out. Water shortens the life of painted surfaces and wood structures.

Insects show determination in their search for new living space and food sources. There is an ad on TV about how a pest control company stops ants from reaching a roof via tree branches by alternating the chemicals they use. Why not trim the tree so the branches don’t rest on or come close to the roof. Bushes that touch roofs, windows, and outer walls are highways for crawling insects.

The description on the tag for new shrubs includes their height and width at maturity. There may be a range of sizes because bushes grow better in more ideal places. Both the width and shape of the growth is important to the appearance of the plant in the landscape, the harmonious effect of plant combinations, and the space available for the shrub and its neighbors. Make sure that nearby buildings are included in your planning.

After allowing for the mature size of shrubs, a newly planted area may look sparse. Try using annual flowers or potted shrubs until the new plants are big enough to make an impact. Dwarf evergreens, like spruce and boxwood, do well in containers and can winter over if they are moved to a location that receives adequate moisture and protection from winds. The height of the container plus the height of the bush makes them good fill-in candidates. Plastic containers will withstand many a Michigan winter and are easier to move than heavier cement pots.

Mature shrubs add to the value of your home if they are healthy and add beauty to the landscape. Protect your investment in shrubs and they will work hard for you.

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Living Birdfeeders


I don’t offer seeds as bird food, but I have several small trees that provide local birds a treat.

There is a native Amelanchier in my front yard. This multi-stemmed tree is also called serviceberry, Juneberry and shadblow. It’s a versatile addition to the landscape that leafs out in April or May and produces small white flowers follow by berries that mature in June.

The ripe blue/purple berries are a favorite of neighborhood robins. The berries are people friendly and popular in jams and jellies cooked with enough sugar to tone down their tartness. If you want to try them, consider covering the trees with netting to ward off the birds. The tree pictured was stripped in two days.

The red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea) is another multi-stemmed tree that produces an edible berry, this one is white. The birds love them, too. And the osier berries ripen later than the serviceberries.

I also have two Pagoda dogwoods (Cornus alternifolia). They grow as single-trunk trees because I prune away the suckers. Their blue-black berries will ripen in a few more weeks.

Consider the benefits of a flowering tree that produces fruit you don’t have to clean up after. There are no stains on the sidewalk. There are no rotting pieces on the ground. There are only happy birds.

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Taking Care of the Home Garden Orchard

It's time to thin the blossoms on your apple trees. Image by EllenM1 at

It’s time to thin the blossoms on your apple trees. Image by EllenM1 at

I was talking to Roy Prentice, Farm Manager at Tollgate Farm, about the fruit season coming up in Michigan. Roy reminded me of the need to thin fruit trees this year. If you have two or two dozen fruit trees on your property, you should know the benefits of thinning.

2012 was unkind to Michigan’s fruit trees. The early thaw/late frost killed a lot of buds. Many trees produced little or no good fruit. The trees will accommodate their own survival and produce a bumper crop this year. Many blossoms mean lots of fruit, but the fruit will be smaller than normal.

You may be happy with small fruit, but there is another effect that won’t make you smile. Alternate fruit bearing refers to trees that produce a lot of fruit in one year and almost no fruit the next year. Plant scientists say that the tree energy expended to mature a lot of fruit reduces the energy available to initiate flower buds for the following spring. So, if this year’s crop is heavy, next year’s crop will be small. You need to thin the trees.

Many fruit bearing trees are thinned just after the blossoms fall. If you are unsure about the current timing for your specific trees, check with your local extension service. There are several sprays available. You can also manually thin the trees.

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We All Live Downstream

There is solid pollution you can see and chemical pollution you can't see.  Image by Anthony Easton at

There is solid pollution you can see and chemical pollution you can’t see. Image by Anthony Easton at

The recent heavy rains prompted Chicago officials to divert the Chicago River and the sewage it carried into Lake Michigan. Kenosha also dumped its sewage directly into Lake Michigan. Those decisions kept black water out of people basements, but they put raw sewage and untreated wastewater into the lake.

There have been many articles about agricultural runoff carried by the Maumee and other rivers going into Lake Erie. Farms and irrigation are a natural pairing. If pollutants are in the river, they will be in the downstream lake. Since Lake Erie is downstream from Lakes Michigan, Superior, and Huron, it receives an abundance of contaminants.

Rivers and streams travel to a lake which travels to an ocean. Pollution reaching the ocean is dangerous to marine life and the creatures who rely on that marine life for food. Contaminated marine food chains can harm land and air animals who eat tainted fish and plant life. Oceans are sensitive to pollution and people depend on the oceans. The quality of human life depends on the quality of ocean water.

When we talk about water, we all live downstream.

Michiganders have a special relationship to water. We also have a special responsibility. Please be aware and involved in water quality issues in your city or town. Think of water quality as a basic city service, like fire and police protection, like roads maintenance. Raise your voice at city and town meetings to let elected officials know you want dependable basic city services to be a priority when they are spending our tax dollars.

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Hummingbirds Return to Michigan Soon

Lucky birdwatchers can see the ruby-throated hummingbird in their yard if they offer tempting nectar. Image by Bitslammer at

Lucky birdwatchers can see the ruby-throated hummingbird in their yard if they offer tempting nectar.
Image by Bitslammer at

The spring of 2013 is slow to normal in getting started. Birds and other animals seem to know when better conditions are just around the corner. Hummingbirds arrive in Michigan starting mid-April and into May, depending on the weather.

This is a good time to get ready and set out the feeders. You can buy nectar or you can make your own. The Smithsonian National Zoological Park offers this recipe for hummingbird nectar:

Directions for making safe hummingbird food:

  1. Mix 1 part sugar with 4 parts water and bring to a boil to kill any bacteria or mold present.
  2. Cool and fill feeder.
  3. Extra sugar water may be stored in a refrigerator.
  4. Red dye should not be added.

Also, start the season with a clean feeder. Wash the feeder with hot soapy water and then with a dilute water/bleach solution. Thoroughly rinse the feeder and allow it to dry before using.

The website How to Enjoy Hummingbirds offers this advice about how often the change the nectar (and wash the feeder).

High temperatures…………Change nectar after

71-75……………………………6 days

76-80……………………………5 days

81-84……………………………4 days

85-88……………………………3 days

89-92……………………………2 days

93+………………………………change daily